Chelsea ended their pre-season campaign with a third loss in five friendlies.The Blues were beaten 1-0 by Italian side Fiorentina at Stamford Bridge, where Radamel Falcao made his first appearance in front of the home fans since moving to West London.Boss Jose Mourinho played down the significance of the result and was pleased to see youngster Ola Aina pick up first-team experience along with fellow academy product Ruben Loftus-Cheek.Meanwhile, Brentford have rejected an £8m bid from Hull City for Andre Gray and Moses Adubajo.Brentford want £10.5m for a double deal involving Gray and AdubajoAnother player who won’t be leaving west London for the time being at least is QPR midfielder Leroy Fer, whose proposed loan move to Sunderland was scrapped after he failed a medical.Samba Diakite, on the other hand, has told West London Sport he wants to stay at Rangers and has pleaded with boss Chris Ramsey to give him a chance.There continues to be speculation over the future of Charlie Austin – the Daily Mirror claim Tottenham want the QPR striker.And R’s fans have been reacting to the arrival of veteran defender Paul Konchesky, with some on Twitter not impressed with the signing.Elsewhere, new Fulham signing Luke Garbutt faces six weeks out with an ankle injury.And Middlesex were beaten by Essex in their latest Royal London One-Day Cup match.Follow West London Sport on TwitterFind us on Facebook
“The basic design rules relating the regulation of cellular function to genomic structure is of broad interest,” begin three Cornell microbiologists writing in PNAS,1 and so they have turned their attention to the smallest theoretical living cell:A �minimal cell� is a hypothetical cell possessing the minimum functions required for sustained growth and reproduction in a maximally supportive culture environment. This organism is considered to live in a rich environment with preformed nutrients and relatively constant temperature and pH.The smallest known independently-living organism, Mycoplasma genitalium, has 580 kilobase pairs of DNA. Most prior estimates for the smallest theoretical cell arrived at 262 genes or more. Early investigators started by studying proteins and their functions. These researchers took a different tack:We propose a reverse approach. We ask how we would design a cell to achieve expected functions and, from that design, how we would write the genomic instructions. This approach follows the typical engineering design approach where desired performance dictates functional design, which is then translated into blueprints.By evaluating which genes seem to overlap and sorting out genes that have similar functions, this team got the number of genes down to only 12, accomplishing 11 essential functions. “It is certainly possible that a smaller set of genes might be found,” they say, “but we believe that the set of functions is minimal.” This theoretical lower limit does not, of course, mean that such an entity could be found or constructed, or if it were, that it could survive and reproduce; their model only “permits growth from preformed nucleotides precursors and has complete nucleotide pathways.”1Castellanos, Wilson and Shuler, “A modular minimal cell model: Purine and pyrimidine transport and metabolism,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA, 10.1073/pnas.0400962101 (published online before print April 16, 2004).Their model is little more than a thought experiment. It imagines “pseudochemical species (or modules) that are aggregates of distinct chemical species that share similar chemistry and metabolic dynamics.” What they try to do is theorize how simple a cell can be to exist and model it in a computer, not in the real world. It’s kind of like designing a minimal airplane that could fly around the world without refueling, assuming there is constant temperature and no wind. When the actual Voyager flew, it involved many engineering and physiological challenges that required even more intelligent design than a simple, heavier airplane. These authors do not attempt to imagine that their theoretical cell would actually be viable. It’s only a theoretical organism, a little better fleshed out than the fake computer organisms of Adami and Lenski. The authors do not imply that such an entity was a precursor to complex life. For one thing, their model required pre-existing nucleotides and other ingredients not easy to come by in an organic soup, and assumed unrealistic constant temperature and pH conditions: in essence, they imagined a little garden of Eden for these theoretical cells, not a primitive hostile environment of crashing waves, hot vents, ice ages or meteor impacts. For another, “This observation reminds us of one of the important challenges for comparative genomics,” they mention in their conclusion: “nonorthologous gene displacements (same function being performed by unrelated or very distantly related nonorthologous proteins).” While this observation encourages them that “A conserved core of functions with a single, ubiquitous solution certainly exists” (theoretically, in the computer), the fact is that real life has a non-overlapping universal set of 80 genes, and the three kingdoms utilize very different proteins for some similar functions. This is undoubtedly a reflection of their different habitats and environments. Are we expected to believe that each of the three kingdoms evolved their own quasi-miraculous solutions to functional requirements independently, on repeated occasions, without brains? While the authors consider it “certainly possible” that someone might get the number down below 12 essential genes, they think their set of 11 functions is a rock-bottom minimum. It won’t help origin-of-life researchers anyway. Forget getting 12, or 80, or 256 genes: getting just one is out of the question (see our online book). On Saturday, Dr. Kurt Durston at the Biola ID conference presented his calculations on the information content of a cell. He said that a minimal cell needs 75,000 bits of information, and showed mathematically that evolutionary selection could not proceed in jumps greater than 90 bits. Even if it required only one tenth of that, 7500 bits, it’s just not going to happen by chance, even with natural selection’s help. We agree with the authors: “The basic design rules relating the regulation of cellular function to genomic structure is of broad interest.”(Visited 24 times, 1 visits today)FacebookTwitterPinterestSave分享0
Share Facebook Twitter Google + LinkedIn Pinterest On Sept. 19 we got an inch or an inch and a half. It evened up the beans a little. We let it dry on Sunday and got started on that Monday with corn harvest in one of our worst fields right across from the shop. I am coming up with an 85-bushel average. We can’t even keep the yield monitor calibrated right with this corn because you don’t have a constant flow. There is 20-bushel corn and 200-bushel corn in the same field. Anytime there is a hill or slope where the water could get away you have good corn. Where you have low ground or no tile there is nothing there. We took off 150 acres of corn and it has not been pretty. It is 18% to 21% moisture and the test weight is around 56 and I am afraid it is going to get worse.We are cutting beans in Van Wert now. I think we’ll see some 100- to 150-bushel corn and in Hancock County it will be up there hopefully around 180 or 200. There is good corn out there but those holes are still there too. Everything we tried — foliar feeding, fungicide, extra nitrogen — it didn’t help the corn. We wasted quite a bit of money but we had to try something.I feel better about the beans. We have run beans from 60 bushels on down to 35-bushel beans where the water did more damage. We have been pleasantly surprised with the beans, but I had a friend call me and tell me that he was running 12% moisture beans and the yield was lower than the moisture.Beans are really too dry. They were down to 10%. We aren’t making a mark on the ground with the equipment. We are doing some tillage where some tile lines settled out.Saturday we planted 56 aces of wheat and we are planting another 75 acres of wheat where we want to tile. Right now we are calling it a cover crop. We’ll see how it makes it through winter and what the markets do. We’ll finish wheat and start planting cereal rye with the air seeder for a cover crop.
March 6, 2014: Airtightness testingWith most of the rough mechanical, electrical, and plumbing work complete, it was time to test the Grant residence Passivhaus for airtightness.We scored approximately 0.75 air changes per hour (ACH) at 50 pascals (Pa) of pressure. Although this is four times tighter than the current energy code requires, it’s not good enough to meet the Passivhaus standard, which requires a reading no greater than 0.60 ach50. So we still have some tightening up to do.The bad news is that the testing did not reveal any major leaks. That means mitigating that last little bit will be extremely difficult.On top of that challenge, the items yet to be installed — the dryer vent and the fireplace flue — are inherently leaky. Wish us luck! ARTICLES BY ALAN ABRAMS A Post-Passivhaus Paradigm for Energy-Efficient DesignMakin’ WUFIA Shortcut To Sustainable Living: Downsize! Never fear. The Passivhaus occupant need not forfeit the vision of a cozy winter’s evening by the fire. There are a few wood stoves and prefabricated fireplaces on the market that are virtually airtight. They can maintain a fire at a low enough output to provide the cozy atmosphere that we naturally seek, without the disadvantages noted above.The point is, that Passive House limits some decisions, but it does not dictate them. The “tyranny” of PassivhausIn his Discourses, Plato has Hippias the Sage assert that “…law is the tyrant of mankind, and often compels us to do many things which are against nature.”The Passivhaus system is truly rigorous. Often it requires modifying a decision or restraining an impulse that would be natural in another context. Specifying an open masonry fireplace in your design program would be a triple nightmare for the Passive House Consultant to deal with:The flue damper. The darn thing would leak so much it would be nearly impossible to reach the airtightness level required to satisfy the energy models.The mass of the chimney would constitute a significant thermal bridge.Stoking up a blazing fire would probably very quickly overheat the super insulated space, forcing the occupants to open doors and windows. October 19, 2013: Under constructionOctober 19 was a gorgeous day to bike out and visit this Passivhaus project located in Derwood, Maryland. The site is surrounded by forest and abuts Lake Bernard Frank. The bike trail passes over the earthen dam, where I saw great blue herons sunning on the berm, and a banded kingfisher perched in a branch near the water. When I arrived at the site, a red-tailed hawk was wheeling right above the house.Image #2 (below) shows the west elevation. What has been erected so far is the first layer of the wall and roof assemblies, which will function as the structural shell of this PassivhausThe specifications call for several inches polyisocyanurate insulation to be installed all of the Zip sheathing shown in the photo. The walls will get 3 inches of polyiso, and the roof will get 6 inches. The roof layer will extend about 30 inches beyond the outside walls to form the eaves. This projection will not only protect the walls from the weather, but will also shade the windows from the summer sun while admitting the winter sun.A second set of framed walls will be built inside the walls shown in the photo. They will form a 10-inch-deep cavity that will be filled with cellulose insulation. According to PHPP, the walls will achieve R-52.1 and the roof will achieve R-66.1. Passivhaus is compatible with traditional home stylesThere are a number of architectural characteristics of a Passivhaus that facilitate performance. To keep warm here in our mid-Atlantic winters, a Passivhaus likes to spread out in the sun, and look to the south. At the same time, a Passivhaus likes generous overhangs and shutters to avoid overheating in summer.Provision for cross flow ventilation, such as windows on two exposures in each important room, and operable skylights, can reduce the need for mechanical air conditioning during the shoulder seasons. In other words, the house could easily look like a traditional bungalow or cottage.A Passivhaus also likes simple massing — corners, offsets, and projections present challenges to achieving airtightness, and inevitably introduce thermal bridges. In this sense, it could also be a Cape Cod or Colonial style house.Some features fight against the grain. Our clients, the Grants of Derwood, Maryland, wanted mulled windows — but the muntin bars reduce the amount of light passing through by as much as 5%. Passivhaus cares deeply about this — when this amenity was factored into the Passive House Performance Package (PHPP), the performance fell off perceptibly.But there was always a solution somewhere: for example, by enlarging south-facing windows or adding additional insulation to compensate for the loss of solar gain.Are you wondering what this house is going to look like when it’s done? The rendering at the top of the page shows the Grant House. Not too weird looking, is it? December 12, 2013: More progressAs winter closes in, work continues on this Passivhaus project (see Image #6, below). The Intus triple-glazed doors and tilt-turn windows are due to be delivered next week. When they are installed, we can perform a preliminary blower-door test, to see how close we are to the mythic air tightness requirement of 0.6 ach50.In the meantime, the duct systems have already been installed. There are two duct systems: one for tempered air, and one for fresh air supply and exhaust. As soon as the building is closed in, other rough-in work will continue. December 20, 2013: Passivhaus certificationNow that the rough carpentry is nearing completion, it was a perfect moment to bring out our Passivhaus rater, Andy Corral of Elysian Energy, to see things in the flesh. I spent a good part of yesterday morning compiling a set of plans and documents for Andy to review, including a revised Passive House Planning Package (PHPP) spreadsheet that reflects the field changes and revisions that have taken place.Some of the changes are minor tweaks — for example, substituting 4 inches of polyisocyanurate insulation for 6 inches of expanded polystyrene over the primary roof structure. The former has more than a 50% higher R-value than the latter; even as the total thickness is reduced, the net insulation value of the roof is increased by R-2.This gain is offset by the substitution of a custom wood front door for the Intus E-Forte UPVC door. Although the wood door has a smaller window, it has a lower net R-value, because — counterintuitively — the three layers of glass are more efficient than 2 inches of wood. It was almost jaw-dropping, how much this one change added to the Specific Space Heat Demand.Another major change is to enclose what had originally been designed as a screened porch. This space is intended for three-season use, and will not have a heat source, but it will still reduce heat loss through the adjacent spaces. I’ve asked Elysian to help quantify the energy savings.An area of some controversy remains. During the Passivhaus pre-certification process, I initially modified some of the PHPP defaults for ground conditions. These were rejected by PHIUS, and I had to beef up other areas of the building envelope to compensate.But during construction, we actually improved conditions beyond the initial input. The entire building subgrade was backfilled with an average of 3 feet of crushed stone, and then topped with 4 inches of sand to support the subslab insulation. This is a very effective thermal break with the underlying soil. Including these values in PHPP makes a significant positive impact.On the other hand, the local climate seems to be slightly cooler than the PHPP default climate for Washington, D.C. Passing by on my bike this morning, Lake Frank — a few hundred yards southeast of the Grant house — was completely frozen over. Does a Passivhaus have to look weird? The short answer is, no. RELATED ARTICLES Passivhaus on a BudgetVisiting Passivhaus Job Sites in Washington StateMore Passivhaus Site Visits in Washington State Alan Abrams is a Certified Passive House Consultant, a Certified Passive House Builder, aCertified Green Professional (NAHB), and a Certified Professional Building Designer (American Institute of Building Designers). He is also the owner of Abrams Design Build in Takoma Park, Maryland.
CALGARY – Enbridge Inc. says it has reached a deal with the State of Michigan on the aging Line 5 pipelines that run along the bottom of a channel between Lakes Huron and Michigan.The twin pipelines were laid in 1953 and have raised increasing concerns about the potential impacts on the Great Lakes if the 540,000-barrel-a-day pipeline were to leak.The Calgary-based energy company (TSX:ENB) says the deal with the state includes completing an evaluation by June 2018 on three options to eventually replace the 7 kilometre stretch of underwater pipeline, as well as immediate safety measures to reduce the risk of a leak.The replacement options include placing a new pipeline in a tunnel under the Straits of Mackinac, installing a new pipeline below the lakebed using advanced drilling techniques, and digging a trench on the bottom of the Great Lakes and then installing the pipeline within a secondary enclosure in the trench.Opponents of the pipeline have called for its complete shutdown, with concerns on the condition of the pipeline increasing after Enbridge’s admissions in recent months that gaps had formed in its protective coating.The company says the pipeline remains in good shape and is fit for service, and that it already operates it at less than 25 per cent of maximum pressure capacity for enhanced safety.
Some of the most active companies traded Thursday on the Toronto Stock Exchange:Toronto Stock Exchange (16,001.71, down 47.31 points).Aurora Cannabis Inc. (TSX:ACB). Health care. Down 81 cents, or 8.9 per cent, to $8.30 on 27.7 million shares.Aphria Inc. (TSX:APH). Health care. Down $3.52, or 16.9 per cent, to $17.30 on 19.2 million shares.RNC Minerals. (TSX:RNX). Metals. Unchanged at 24 cents on 10.7 million shares.HEXO Corp. (TSX:HEXO). Health care. Down 76 cents, or 9.2 per cent, to $7.49 on 10.5 million shares.Canopy Growth Corp. (TSX:WEED). Health care. Down $9.03, or 13.6 per cent, to $57.28 on 8.7 million shares.Dollarama Inc. (TSX:DOL). Consumer discretionary. Down $8.95, or 17.2 per cent, to $43.12 on 7.7 million shares.Companies reporting major news:Dollarama Inc. (TSX:DOL). Down $8.95, or 17.2 per cent, to $43.12 on 7.7 million shares traded. The discount retailer’s shares had the worst day on the Toronto Stock Market after its second-quarter revenue, earnings and sales growth were weaker than analysts expected and the company indicated that it has been reluctant to raise prices due to competitive pressures. Although the results were shy of forecasts, Dollarama’s profit in the fiscal second quarter rose to $141.8 million from $131.8 million a year ago and sales grew to $868.5 million.Transat AT. (TSX:TRZ). Down 57 cents or 6.5 per cent to $8.25. The tour package company and airline missed expectations as it swung to a loss of $4 million from a $26.6-million profit in the third quarter a year ago. Excluding non-operating items, Transat reported an adjusted loss of $3 million or eight cents per share for the quarter compared with an adjusted profit of $26.9 million or 73 cents per share a year ago. Revenues fell five per cent to $696.6 million.Empire Company Ltd. (TSX:EMP.A). Down 81 cents or 3.2 per cent to $24.25. The parent company of grocery chain Sobeys Ltd. said its fiscal first-quarter profit increased to $95.6 million, up from $54 million a year ago , when it was hit by $28.7 million in costs related to its Project Sunrise cost-savings plan. On an adjusted basis, Empire said it earned $100.2 million or 37 cents per share for the quarter, up from $87.5 million or 32 cents per share a year ago. Sales totalled $6.46 billion, up from $6.27 billion.
Siddha Group, Eastern India’s leading real estate developer, recently announced a first-of-its-kind initiative, Rooftop Skyplex, at their projects with Skywalks to give Kolkatans an altogether new movie-watching experience like never before.Siddha Group has always been a pioneer in introducing new dimensions in real estate; be it the longest ever Rooftop Skywalk in the world at an affordable residential project or the Siddha homebuying App and more. Skyplex is an additional feature where Siddha home-buyers can watch movies at the open air Rooftop Skywalks in an amphitheater setting. Also Read – An income drop can harm brainA lot of residential condominiums have introduced the concept of mini theatres at their residential clubs but Siddha Group is going a step forward and introducing Rooftop Sky Theatre experience with Skyplex with modern projection technologies with hi-tech sound system at their Skywalks. “We have always added innovations in our projects which have made home buying and living experience for the customers better. With our Rooftop Skywalks being the talk of the town, we added this extraordinary feature in the form of Skyplex in our Skywalks. Because who wouldn’t love the experience of watching their favourite movies or watching their favourite teams fight it out at the fields, at the rooftop under the sky in the open air. Now-a-days it is all about providing unique experiences and we are sure this is something our customers will look forward to”, said Sanjay Jain, Managing Director, Siddha Group. Siddha will be adding this feature across their affordable Skywalk projects that include Siddha Sky at EM Bypass, Siddha Suburbia on Southern Bypass, Siddha Eden LakeVille on BT Road and Siddha Galaxia at Rajarhat. All the Skyplex are proposed to have a 2K projection and dolby digital sound system. Comfortable sit outs across the amphitheatre will provide ample seating space for the residents.
NEW DELHI: Chief Minister Arvind Kejriwal on Tuesday demanded strict action into the brutal killing of a businessman after he allegedly objected to lewd comments made by some boys on his daughter in west Delhi. The businessman’s 19-year-old son was also injured in the attack. Police identified the accused as Jahangir Khan and his son Mohammad Alam were arrested in the case and two minors were also apprehended. The Delhi Commission For Women (DCW) also issued a notice to Delhi Police on Tuesday seeking details of investigation in the matter. Also Read – Odd-Even: CM seeks transport dept’s views on exemption to women, two wheelers, CNG vehiclesKejriwal posted on Twitter, “Delhi Police must take strongest action against the guilty.” Delhi BJP Chief Manoj Tiwari also described the incident as “sad and highly condemnable.” “Sad, highly condemnable. Father protested, to uphold the dignity of his daughter. A brave son did his duty towards his family. Goondaism and urban naxalism have no place in our society. We should all come together and condemn it. Culprits should be punished through fast track court,” Tiwari wrote. Also Read – More good air days in Delhi due to Centre’s steps: JavadekarThe DCW said it “is extremely shocked and perturbed by the gravity of offence committed by the men, the father of the men and the accomplices”. In the notice issued to Deputy Commissioner of Police (West), the women’s panel sought information whether any complaint of harassment, eve-teasing, molestation etc had been received against the accused in the past. The commission has also asked police about the details of the FIR and whether the accused who allegedly misbehaved with the victim’s daughter were booked under appropriate sections of law. They have also sought the current status report on the investigation by May 17. Deputy Commissioner of Police (West) Monika Bharadwaj said that businessman son’s Anmol who was injured in the incident did not give his statement on Tuesday. When asked whether the deceased’s family had given any complaint about accused in past, DCP West stated that no such complaints were received. “The attack was not preplanned,” added DCP West. The Delhi Police had kept their personnel at the spot to stop any untoward incident. Investigators said that questioning is going on with the family members including accused’s wife in the case.